What is Diabetic Neuropathy?
Diabetic neuropathy is a nerve damaging disorder associated with diabetes mellitus.The condition seems to result from diabetic microvascular trauma involving small blood vessels that supply nerves in addition to conditions involving large blood vessels that can culminate in diabetic neuropathy. Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy,mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, diabetic amyotrophy painful polyneuropathy autonomicneuropathy and thoracoabdominal neuropathy.
What are the Signs and symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy?
Diabetic neuropathy affects all peripheral nerves including pain fibers, motor neurons and the autonomic nervous system. It, therefore, can affect all organs and systems, as all are supplied by nerves. There are several distinct syndromes based on the organ systems and members affected, but these are by no means exclusive. A patient can have sensory-motor and autonomic neuropathy or any other combination. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the nerve(s) affected and may include symptoms other than those listed. Symptoms usually develop gradually over years
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Trouble with balancing, Numbness and tingling of extremities, Dysesthesia (abnormal sensation to a body part), Diarrhoea, Erectile dysfunction, Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control), Facial, mouth and eyelid drooping, Vision changes, Dizziness, Musculer weakness, Difficulty in swallowing, Speech impairment, Fasciculation (muscle contractions), Anorgasmia, Retrograde ejaculation (in males)
What is the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Neuropathy?
The following factors are thought to be involved in the development of diabetic neuropathy: Microvascular disease
Vascular and neural diseases are closely related and intertwined. Blood vessels depend on normal nerve function, and nerves depend on adequate blood flow. The first pathological change in the small blood vessels is narrowing of the blood vessels. As the disease progresses, neuronal dysfunction correlates closely with the development of blood vessel abnormalities, such as capillary basement membrane thickening and endothelial hyperplasia, which contribute to diminished oxygen tension and hypoxia.Neuronal ischaemia is a well-established characteristic of diabetic neuropathy. Blood vessel opening drugs (e.g. Yamuna Garli-Zn-Co capsule) can lead to substantial improvements in neuronal blood flow, with corresponding improvements in nerve conduction velocities. Thus, small blood vessel dysfunction occurs early in diabetes, parallels the progression of neural dysfunction, and may be sufficient to support the severity of structural, functional, and clinical changes observed in diabetic neuropathy.