Loss of Appetite (Anorexia)




What is Loss of Appetite (Anorexia)

Loss of Appetite (Anorexia) is the decreased sensation of appetite. While the term in non-scientific publications is often used interchangeably with anorexia nervosa, many possible causes exist for a decreased appetite, some of which may be harmless, while others indicate a serious clinical condition or pose a significant risk.
For example, loss of appetite or anorexia of infection is part of the acute phase response (APR) to infection. The APR can be triggered by lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans from bacterial cell walls, bacterial DNA, and double-stranded viral RNA, and viral glycoproteins, which can trigger production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines. These can have an indirect effect on appetite by a number of means, including peripheral afferents from their sites of production in the body, by enhancing production of leptin from fat stores. Inflammatory cytokines can also signal to the central nervous system more directly by specialized transport mechanisms through the blood-brain barrier, via circumventricular organs (which are outside the barrier), or by triggering production of eicosanoids in the endothelial cells of the brain vasculature. Ultimately the control of appetite by this mechanism is thought to be mediated by the same factors normally controlling appetite, such as neurotransmitters (serotonins, dopamine, histamine, norepinephrine, corticotrophin releasing factor,neuropeptide Y, and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone)

Clinically important causes of Loss of Appetite or Anorexia

*Acute radiation syndrome *Acute viral hepatitis *Addison’s disease * Atypical pneumonia (mycoplasma)*AIDS* Anorexia nervosa *Anxiety disorder *Appendicitis *Cancer *Chronic pain *Chronic kidney disease *Congestive cardiac failure (may be due to congestion of the liver wit venous blood) *Crohn’s disease *Dehydration *Dementia *Drug addiction *Hypervitaminosis D *Metabolic disorders,particularly urea cycle disorders *Mood disorders and moods which arise from them both depression and mania *Sickness behavior *Superior mesenteric artery syndrome *Tuberculosis *Thalassemia *Ulcerative colitis *Zinc deficiency

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is taken in the dose of 3 to 4 teaspoonful three times a day with potable water.

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Certain Drugs causing Loss of Appetite or Anorexia

Amphetamine,dextroamphetamine,Lisdexamphetamine *Antidepressants may cause Loss of Appetite or Anorexia as a side effect *Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors* Byetta ,a Type II Diabetes drug will cause moderate nausea and Loss of Appetite or Anorexia * Dexmethylphenidate* Abrupt withdrawl of appetite-increasing drugs such as cannabis and corticosteroids Methylamphetamine (in treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy)*Methylphenidate *Chemicals that are members of the phenethylamine group *Stimulants such as caffeine,nicotine and cocaine *Topiramate (as a side effect)*Opiates act upon the digestive system and can reduce the physical sensation of hunger in the same way that they reduce physical sensation of pain.They also frequently cause delayed gastric emptying (gastroparesis) and can sometimes lead changes in metabolism with long-term use.

Other conditions that cause Loss of Appetite or Anorexia

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